The Digital Divide: A Resource List
Clara M. Chu
UCLA Department of Information Studies
September 17, 2000
(last update)

  1. Digital Divide: What is it? *
  2. Digital Divide: Who is affected? How? *


  1. Digital Divide: Sites, eLists, and Funding
  2. Community Sites, Networking, and CTCs
  3. Resource Lists and Miscellaneous

*NOTE: Entries are in reverse chronological order.



I. Digital Divide: What is it?


Press Release: Microsoft Extends International Giving With Initiatives To Bridge Global Digital Divide Company Pledges Nearly $1 Million to Programs in India, Korea, Russia and Colombia; Backs White House Call to Action to Bridge Global Digital Divide by 2010 as Part of "Digital Leaders Program", July 21, 2000.

"Today, as part of the Group of Eight summit meeting, Microsoft Corp. pledged nearly $1 million for four new initiatives to help communities around the world bridge the digital divide. Additionally, Microsoft endorsed the White House global digital divide Call to Action and served as a founding member of the President's "Digital Leaders Program," a group of industry leaders including Andersen Consulting, Cisco Systems Inc., IBM Corp., Eastman Kodak Co., America Online Inc., Motorola Inc. and Lucent Technologies Inc. who together have committed to help create digital opportunity for the people of the world, and to take concrete steps to help facilitate these opportunities."

Carvin, Andy. "Beyond Access: Understanding the Digital Divide," (Keynote Address, NYU Third Act Conference, May 19, 2000), Communications: Policy & Practice. Slideshow presentation:

Carvin, Andy. "Mending the Breach: Overcoming the Digital Divide," Edutopia, Spring 2000. Also includes: "Digital Divide: Next Steps: A Conversation with David Bolt" and "Bridging the Digital Divide: A Presentation Tool," by Aprille Ericsson-Jackson.

"The Digital Divide," Community Forum (Microsoft Classroom Teacher Network) In this interview, MCTN talks with Professors Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak about the digital divide and the relationship of race to Internet access.

Keyes, David. "Seattle Measures its Digital Divide,", May 1, 2000.

Press Release: The Clinton-Gore Administration: From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity, February 2, 2000.

Carvin, Andy. "1's and 0's: Mind the Gap: The Digital Divide as the Civil Rights Issue of the New Millennium," MultiMedia Schools: A Practical Journal of Multimedia, CD-ROM, Online, and Internet in K-12, 7(1), January/February 2000.

Marks, Alexandra. "Digital Divide Narrows : Minorities Closing High-Tech Gap," The Christian Science Monitor, January 26, 2000.

The Digital Beat Online Journal- "The Digital Divide: Evolving Awareness and Evolving Solutions," by Jamal Le Blanc, January 2000.

NUA Internet Surveys-"US Department of Commerce: US Government Launch Digital Divide Initiative," January 2000.

"Structuring Access: The Role of Public Access Centers in the ‘Digital Divide’," Paper submitted to the International Communication Association, Acapulco, 2000 by Becky Lentz, Joseph Staubhaar, Ph.D., Antonio LaPastina, Ph.D., Stain Main and Julie Taylor. January 2000.

Kalish, David. "Bridging the Digital Divide: Companies Aim to Bring Internet Access to Everyone," The Associated Press, December 17, 1999.

"Strategies to Bridge the Digital Divide: Summit Examines Access to Technology and High-tech Jobs," by Venise Wagner, San Francisco Examiner, October 1999.

Digital Divide Grows: Disparity is Not Just About Internet Access," Reuters, September 17, 1999.

The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute: Policy—Brief: "Challenges to Bridging the Digital Divide: Building Better on Ramps to the Information Highway," by Paula Y. Bagasao, Ph.D., Elsa Macias, Ph.D., Sara Jones, and Harry P. Pachon, Ph.D., August 1999.

Shepard, Paul. "Bridging the Racial Net Gap: NAACP Works With AT&T to Create Tech Centers," The Associated Press, July 13, 1999.

"The Digital Divide"- Staff, July 1999.

Teicher, Stacy A. "Affirmative Access Working Together with Bridge ‘Digital Divide’," The Christian Science Monitor, July 1999.

Bridis, Ted. "Minorities Fall through the Net: Report Warns of ‘Racial Ravine’ in Online Access," The Associated Press, July 8, 1999.

Macavinta,Courtney. "Study: Digital Divide Persists," CNET, July 1999.

eLab Research on the Digital Divide: Papers. "The Growing Digital Divide: Implications for an Open Research Agenda," by Donna L. Hoffman & Thomas P. Novak (A Report), July 1999. - science paper

"U.S. Study shows ‘digital divide’ growing—or is it?," by Adam Clayton Powell III, The Freedom Forum Online, July 1999.

"USA Today: Growing Debate on an Emerging Digital Divide," May 1999.

USA TODAY: Tech Report: "Debating the Digital Divide," May 1999.

"College Board Online: Technology Increases Gap in Education," April 1999.

"Digital Divide Questioned: by Malcolm Maclachlan, TechWeb, April 1999.

Planet It Web Design & Development: "Digital Divide Questioned," by Malcom Maclachian, TechWeb, April 1999.

U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science: "Moving Toward More Effective Public Internet Access: The 1998 National Survey of Public Library Outlet Internet Connectivity," A Report Based on Research Sponsored by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and Conducted by John Carlo Bertot and Charles R. McClure. March 1999.

"Telecom Act Leading to Digital Divide," by Mary Mosquera, TechWeb, February 1999.

ISSUES in Education & Technology Journal’s article: "The Digital Divide: Social Justice in the Information Age," by Claude Henry Potts, Winter 1999.

Y2C: Guide to the Digital Divide. New York: HEAVEN (Helping, Educate, Activate, Volunteer Via the Net), 1999 (?).

"Crossing the Digital Divide One Bridge at a Time," by Rodolpho Carrasco, Minorities’ Job Bank, 1999.

"Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide," (Research Report), National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 1999.

NUA Internet Surveys: Report of statistics about the Digital Divide Worldwide., 1999.

Techweb: To Have and Have not—The Digital Divide between rich and poor run deep—particularly in America’s cities by Rachel King, August 1998.

"Toward Network Literacy: Public Access to the World Wide Web in New Zealand’s Public Libraries: A Research Report," by Anna Chalmers (Research Unit), 1998.

The Pew Research Center for the People & The Press— "Online Newscomers More Middle-Brow, Less Work-Oriented: The Internet News Audience Goes Ordinary," 1998.

"Society’s Digital Divide," by Staff, CNET, March 1997.



Adult Literacy and Technology Conference 2000: Bridging the Digital Divide.

"Querying the Digital Divide: Critical Perspectives on an Emergent Public Debate" Panel, chaired by Ami Rhae Adams. American Anthropological Association 99th Annual Meeting, Friday, 17th November 2000; San Francisco.

"Bridging the Digital Divide: Multiple Solutions" Panel, Rural Telecommunications Congress, 3rd October 2000; Aspen, Colorado.

The Bridge Builders Conference…Over the Digital Divide: Conference will be held on February 17th & 18th in Wilmington, Delaware. Last Updated, February 3, 2000.

PBS Documentary series about the Digital Divide—January 28, 2000.

Electronic Conference: Jeffrey Kaye takes a look at the chasm between the haves and have nots on the world of cyberspace,. September 1999.


II. Digital Divide: Who is affected? How?

Children and Families

The Children's Partnership Has published several reports including:


Gays, Lesbians, Bisexual, Transgendered, etc.

NUA Internet Surveys-"The Industry Standard: Investors Flock to Gay and Lesbian Portals," February 2000.

THESTANDARD: Intelligence for the Internet Economy-"Gay Portals Come out," February 2000. (in 2 pages).,1151,9660-1,00.html

"Computer Economics: Over 17 Million Gay and Lesbian Users by 2005," January 1999.


Health Impact

Garces, Roberto F. Experts Propose Policies to Bridge California's Digital Divide, Improve Health (The Work and Health Series). Sacramento, CA: The California Center for Health Improvement, March 2000.




NUA Internet Surveys-"LA Times: Online Hispanics Favour Sites in English," January 2000.

The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute: Bridging the Digital Divide (statistics). January 2000.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration: FACT SHEET: Hispanics Falling Back in Information Age, November 1999.

The Digital Beat: "The Digital Divide and the US Hispanic Population," August 1999.

The Freedom Forum Online-"Latino American Households now more Net-Connected than Whites," by Adam Clayton Powell III, April 1999.

Wilhelm, Anthony. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at Hispanic Families. Claremont, CA:The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, 1998(?).

Claremont University, CA— Press Release: "Why is there a Gap in Home Computer Ownership Among Middle Class Hispanic?: Computer Hardware and Software Companies are Missing Out on an Untapped Market of More than a Half a Billion Dollars," November 1997.



NUA Internet Surveys’s article: "eMarketer: Non-English Speakers Catch-Up," January 1998.


Poor People

Online Content for Low-Income and Underserved Americans: The Digital Divide's New Frontier. A Strategic Audit of Activities and Opportunities. March 2000.

"Rutgers University: Working Poor Left Behind in Internet Stakes," July 1999.

John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development-"Working Hard but Staying Poor in the Shadow of the Boom: New Survey of America’s Working Poor Provided In-Depth Economic Portrait," July 1999.


Race, Ethnicity, Minorities

Research Foundations on Successful Participation of Underrepresented Minorities in Information Technology: A Cyberconference. Final Report, June 2000. Executive Summary, 1999.

"Africana Studies 4900, 'Cyberspace and the Black Experience,' at U. of Toledo," The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 19, 2000.

NUA Internet Surveys-"Reuters: Digital Revolution to Overcome Racial Divide," September 1999.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration— Fact Sheet: Racial Divide Continues to Grow: Falling through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide, July, 1999.

"Gap between white, black PC ownership reported," by Associated Press, The Freedom Forum Online, July 1999.’s article: "Making the Net Firms More Ethnically Diverse: Company are urged to make minority hiring a top priority," by Kathleen Murphy, May 1999.

"Study shows more African-Americans Online than previously reported," by Adam Clayton Powell III, April 1998.

eLab: "Bridging the Digital Divide: The Impact of Race on Computer Access and Internet Use," by Thomas P. Novak and Donna L. Hoffman, February 1998.


Rural America

Parker, Edwin B. "Closing the Digital Divide in Rural America," Telecommunications Policy Online: The International Journal on Knowledge Infrastructure Development, Management and Regulation, 24(4), May 2000.


Social Impact of Internet/Computer Use

"SIQSS: Internet Use Has Social Side Effects," NUA Internet Surveys, February 2000.

"Study takes early look at Social Consequences of Net use," by Kathleen O’Toole, Stanford Online Report, February 2000.

NUA Internet Surveys-"Simon Weisenthal Center: Report Lists Over 1,400 Hate Sites," March 1999.

Chicago Sun-Times: "City’s Melting Pot Finds way Online," September 1998.

"Technology in the Public Interest," issue theme of Next Generation Reports: Information Tools for Leaders for Children, Youth, Families & Communities. March 1998. Content includes: "Point of View: Technology As A Social Benefit Tool," " Children & Technology: At A Glance," and "Technology In The Public Interest: At Work In Communities."



Research Foundations for Improving the Representation of Women in the Information Technology Workforce: A Virtual Workshop. Final Report, May 29, 2000. Executive Summary, 1999.



III. Digital Divide: Sites, eLists, and Funding


Americans in the Information Age Falling Through the Net (An NTIA site) Closing the Digital Divide

Digital Divide Series Home-PBS

The Digital Divide Network

The Digital Beat Online Journal (Benton Foundation – Communications: Policy & Practice)

Digital Stepping Stones, a project of (The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI).

The Digital Steppingstones (DSS) initiative sheds light on exemplary practical uses of technology in diverse learning environments. A learning environment includes libraries, community centers, and K-12 schools where all members of the community--young and old, immigrant and native-born--have access to meaningful programs that provide useful lifelong knowledge which can be applied in today's society.

Equity (The Center for the Study of Technology and Society).

Why study Equity? Making sure no one is excluded from the benefits of technological progress - either at home or abroad.

Forrester Research: An Independent Research Firm. Has conducted research on minorities and computer access.

Institute for Telecommunication Sciences - the research and engineering branch of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), a part of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC).

Web-based Education Commission

The Web-based Education Commission was established by Congress to develop specific policy recommendations geared toward maximizing the educational promise of the Internet for pre-K, elementary, middle, secondary, and postsecondary education learners. Since November 1999, the 16 members of the Commission-appointed by President Clinton, Education Secretary Richard Riley, and the Democratic and Republican leadership of Congress-have been meeting with hundreds of education, business, policy, and technology experts. Its overarching goal is to establish a “policy roadmap” that will help education and policy officials at the local, state, and national levels better address the critical “digital age” challenges brought about by the Internet and other emerging technologies. The Commission seeks broad public input on the key issues and potential resolutions affecting the use of the Internet for learning.



The Digital Divide Network Discussion List


Funding and Assistance (see also "Sites" section above)

3Com: Urban Challenge

Commerce News-United States Department of Commerce-"Commerce Announces $12.5 Million in Grants to be awarded to Help to close Digital Gap," January 2000.

The Freedom Forum Online offers funding for their projects, programs and partnerships.

HEAVEN (Helping, Educate, Activate, Volunteer Via the Net)

Mendels, Pamela. "Offered Old Computers, Some School Officials Decline," The New York Times on the Web, March 22, 2000.

Press Release: "The Clinton-Gore Administration: From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity," February 2, 2000.


IV. Community Sites, Networking, and CTCs

Electronic/Cyber-Communities (see also

Black (Where African Americans Live Online) (Asian Pacific American Community Server) (Recipes, Countries, Shopping) (Where Opportunity, Community and Diversity Connect) (Latino Search Engine and Portal)


Community Building/Networking

"Access is not enough," by Mitchel Resnick and Natalie Rusk, July-August 1996.

Association for Community Networking (AFCN)

An educational nonprofit corporation dedicated to fostering and supporting "Community Networking" -- community-based creation & provision of appropriate technology services. AFCN's mission is to improve the visibility, viability and vitality of Community Networking by assisting and connecting people and organizations, building public awareness, identifying best practices, encouraging research, influencing policy, and developing products & services

The Community Connector list

Net.Work.Shop. Contact: Karen L. Wade. (323) 735-6616, – Network of people and organizations meeting to bridge the digital divide in the Los Angeles area. (Community online to bridge the ‘digital divide’)


Community Technology Centers (CTCs)

The Community Technology Centers' Network (CTCNet)


V. Resource Lists and Miscellaneous

The Community Connector list

Culture, Class and Cyberspace list

"Digital Divide: Articles and reports on the gap between minorities and whites in internet access," About: The Human Internet (Race Relations).

"Digital Divide A look at the haves and have-nots of the Net. Who has Internet access, who doesn't, and demographics online," About: The Human Internet (Net Culture).

"The Digital Divide," Educational Cyber-Playground. Resourcers for teachers.

Digital Divide Network list

The Lutheran Office of Governmental Ministry - Colorado A Ministry of Advocacy of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The Digital Divide in America Problems of Access & Infrastructure to Information Technologies.

Nua Internet Surveys

Nua Internet Surveys is the authoritative source online for information on Internet demographics and trends. Its information reaches 200,000 people worldwide every week and has been translated into Russian, German, Greek, Portuguese, Italian, Hebrew and Spanish. Nua Internet Surveys is a database containing over three years of information gathered and collated by Nua.

PBS (Public Broadcast Station) Digital Divide Series

TRPI Projects: Digital Steppingstones