Understanding Jargon: A Short Bibliography

Philip E. Agre
Department of Information Studies
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California 90095-1520


Version of 15 September 2002.


This is a bibliography of books about propaganda and public relations. It includes books from a variety of genres. Just to be sure, my purpose in assembling this list is not to assert that public relations is necessarily a bad thing. At the same time, I do not necessarily endorse any of the books on this list.  


Donald E. Abelson, American Think-Tanks and Their Role in US Foreign Policy, Houndmills, UK: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Donald E. Abelson, Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.

Theodor W. Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality, New York: Harper, 1950.

Theodor W. Adorno, The Psychological Technique of Martin Luther Thomas' Radio Addresses, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Jerome Agel, Herman Kahnsciousness: The Megaton Ideas of the One-Man Think Tank, New York: New American Library, 1973.

Pertti Ahonen, ed, Tracing the Semiotic Boundaries of Politics, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.

Roger Ailes, You Are the Message: Getting What You Want by Being Who You Are, New York: Doubleday, 1988.

C. Fred Alford, Group Psychology and Political Theory, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

David L. Altheide and John M. Johnson, eds, Bureaucratic Propaganda, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1980.

Roger Andersen, The Power and the Word: Language, Power and Change, London: Paladin, 1988.

Stephen Ansolabehere and Shanto Iyengar, Going Negative: How Attack Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate, New York: Free Press, 1995.

Ron Arnold, Ecology Wars: Environmentalism As If People Mattered, Bellevue: Free Enterprise Press, 1987.

Erik Asard and W. Lance Bennett, Democracy and the Marketplace of Ideas: Communication and Government in Sweden and the United States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Max Atkinson, Our Masters' Voices: The Language and Body Language of Politics, London: Methuen, 1984.

James Arnt Aune, Selling the Free Market: The Rhetoric of Economic Correctness, New York: Guilford Press, 2001.

Erica Weintraub Austin and Bruce E. Pinkleton, Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Programs, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001.

Joseph F. Awad, The Power of Public Relations, New York: Praeger, 1985.


F. G. Bailey, The Tactical Uses of Passion: An Essay on Power, Reason, and Reality, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.

Lee W. Baker, The Credibility Factor: Putting Ethics to Work in Public Relations, Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1993.

J. M. Balkin, Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Stephen P. Banks, Multicultural Public Relations: A Social-Interpretive Approach, second edition, Ames: Iowa State University Press, 2000.

Eugene Bardach, The Implementation Game: What Happens After a Bill Becomes a Law, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977.

David Barsamian and Noam Chomsky, Propaganda and the Public Mind: Conversations With Noam Chomsky, Cambridge: South End Press, 2001.

Adrian Beard, The Language of Politics, London: Routledge, 2000.

Mike Beard, Running a Public Relations Department, second edition, London: Kogan Page, 2001.

Sharon Beder, Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism, Chelsea Green, 1998.

W. Lance Bennett, The Political Mind and the Political Environment: An Investigation of Public Opinion and Political Consciousness, Lexington, MA : Lexington, 1975.

W. Lance Bennett and David L. Paletz, eds, Taken by Storm: The Media, Public Opinion, and US Foreign Policy in the Gulf War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

W. Lance Bennett, The Governing Crisis: Media, Money, and Marketing in American Elections, second edition, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

W. Lance Bennett, News: The Politics of Illusion, third edition, White Plains, NY: Longman, 1996.

W. Lance Bennett and Robert M. Entman, eds, Mediated Politics: Communication in the Future of Democracy, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952.

Edward L. Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion, New York: Boni and Liveright, 1923.

Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda, New York: Liveright, 1928.

Edward L. Bernays, Speak Up for Democracy: What You Can Do -- A Practical Plan of Action for Every American Citizen, New York: Viking Press, 1940.

Edward L. Bernays, Public Relations, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952.

Edward L. Bernays, ed, The Engineering of Consent, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955.

David Bernstein, Company Image and Reality: A Critique of Corporate Communications, Eastbourne, UK: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

Albert D. Biderman and Herbert Zimmer, eds, The Manipulation of Human Behavior, New York: Wiley, 1961.

Michael Billig, Ideology and Social Psychology: Extremism, Moderation, and Contradiction, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.

Michael Billig, Ideology and Opinions: Studies in Rhetorical Psychology, London: Sage, 1991.

Jeffrey H. Birnbaum, The Lobbyists: How Influence Peddlers Get Their Way in Washington, New York: Times Books, 1992.

Sidney Blumenthal, The Permanent Campaign: Inside the World of Elite Political Operatives, Boston: Beacon Press, 1980.

Jeff and Marie Blyskal, PR: How the Public Relations Industry Writes the News, New York: William Morrow, 1985.

Carl Boggs, The End of Politics: Corporate Power and the Decline of the Public Sphere, New York: Guilford Press, 2000.

Dwight Bolinger, Language: The Loaded Weapon, New York: Longman, 1980.

Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, New York: Harper and Row, 1961.

Carl H. Botan and Vincent Hazelton, Jr., eds, Public Relations Theory, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989.

Pierre Bourdieu, Language and Symbolic Power, translated from the French by Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

James K. Brown, This Business of Issues: Coping with the Company's Environments, New York: Conference Board, 1979.

Philip H. Burch, Reagan, Bush, and Right-Wing Politics: Elites, Think Tanks, Power, and Policy, Greenwich, CT: JAI, 1997.

Peter Burke and Roy Porter, eds, Languages and Jargons: Contributions to a Social History of Language, Polity Press, 1995.

Robert Busby, Defending the American Presidency: Clinton and the Lewinsky Scandal, Houndmills, UK: Palgrave, 2001.

Randall L. Bytwerk, Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic, East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2004.


Craig Calhoun, ed, Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992.

Karlyn Kohrs Campbell and Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Deeds Done in Words: Presidential Rhetoric and the Genres of Governance, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

W. Glenn Campbell, The Competition of Ideas: How My Colleagues and I Built the Hoover Institution, Ottawa, IL: Jameson, 2000.

Bill Cantor, ed, Experts in Action: Inside Public Relations, New York: Longman, 1984.

Albert H. Cantril and Susan Davis Cantril, Reading Mixed Signals: Ambivalence in American Public Opinion About Government, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

James G. Cantrill and Christine L. Oravec, eds, The Symbolic Earth: Discourse and Our Creation of the Environment, University Press of Kentucky, 1996.

Joseph N. Cappella and Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Alex Carey, Taking the Risk Out of Democracy: Corporate Propaganda Versus Freedom and Liberty, edited by Andrew Lohrey, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Clarke L. Caywood, ed, The Handbook of Strategic Public Relations and Integrated Communications, McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies, On Ideology, London: Hutchinson, 1978.

Stuart Chase, Guides to Straight Thinking, With 13 Common Fallacies, New York: Harper, 1956.

Noam Chomsky, The Indispensable Chomsky, edited by Peter R. Mitchell and John Schoeffel, New York: New Press, 2002.

Wayne Clark, Activism in the Public Sphere: Exploring the Discourse of Political Participation, Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000.

Kenneth Cmiel, Democratic Eloquence: The Fight over Popular Speech in Nineteenth-Century America, New York: Morrow, 1990.

Richard Cockett, Thinking the Unthinkable: Think-Tanks and the Economic Counter-Revolution 1931-1983, revised edition, London: HarperCollins, 1995.

Peter A. Coclanis and Stuart W. Bruchey, eds, Ideas, Ideologies, and Social Movements: The United States Experience since 1800, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999.

James E. Combs and Dan Nimmo, The New Propaganda: The Dictatorship of Palaver in Contemporary Politics, New York: Longman, 1993.

Joe Conason and Gene Lyons, The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton, St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Joe Conason, Big Lies: The Right-Wing Propaganda Machine and How It Distorts the Truth, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2003.

William E. Connolly, The Terms of Political Discourse, third edition, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Charles Conrad, Strategic Organizational Communication: An Integrated Perspective, Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1990.

Timothy E. Cook, Governing With the News: The News Media As a Political Institution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Ann N. Crigler, ed, The Psychology of Political Communication, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Cynthia Crosson, Tainted Truth: The Manipulation of Fact in America, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

Scott M. Cutlip, The Unseen Power: Public Relations, A History, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994.

Scott M. Cutlip, Public Relations History: From the 17th to the 20th Century: The Antecedents, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.

Daniel J. Czitrom, Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.


Stanley M. Davis, Managing Corporate Culture, Cambridge: Ballinger, 1984.

Stanley A. Deetz and Sheryl L. Stevenson, Managing Interpersonal Communication, New York: Harper and Row, 1986.

Anthony R. DeLuca, Politics, Diplomacy, and the Media: Gorbachev's Legacy in the West, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

Andrew Denham, Think-Tanks of the New Right, Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth, 1996.

Andrew Denham and Mark Garnett, British Think-Tanks and the Climate of Opinion, London: UCL Press, 1998.

John Dewey, The Public and Its Problems, New York: Holt, 1927.

Eric Dezenhall, Nail 'em! Confronting High-Profile Attacks on Celebrities and Businesses, Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 1999.

Paul Dickson, Think Tanks, New York: Atheneum, 1971.

Daniel Dieterich, ed, Teaching About Doublespeak, Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1976.

Robert L. Dilenschneider, Power and Influence: Mastering the Art of Persuasion, New York: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Robert L. Dilenschneider, A Briefing for Leaders: Communication as the Ultimate Exercise of Power, New York: Harper, 1992.

Robert L. Dilenschneider, ed, Dartnell's Public Relations Handbook, fourth edition, Chicago: Dartnell, 1996.

Robert L. Dilenschneider, The Corporate Communications Bible: Everything You Need to Know to Become a Public Relations Expert, Beverly Hills, CA: New Millennium Press, 2000.

G. William Domhoff, Who Really Rules? New Haven and Community Power Reexamined, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1978.

Gary Dorrien, The Neoconservative Mind: Politics, Culture, and the War of Ideology, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.

John S. Dryzek, Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.


Derek Edwards and Jonathan Potter, Discursive Psychology, London: Sage, 1992.

Jacques Ellul, Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, translated by Konrad Kellen and Jean Lerner, New York: Knopf, 1965.

Jon Elster, ed, Deliberative Democracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

William N. Elwood, ed, Public Relations Inquiry as Rhetorical Criticism: Case Studies of Corporate Discourse and Social Influence, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

Robert M. Entman, Democracy Without Citizens: Media and the Decay of American Politics, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Samuel S. Epstein, The Politics of Cancer, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1978.

Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.

Stuart Ewen and Elizabeth Ewen, Channels of Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping of American Consciousness, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Stuart Ewen, PR! A Social History of Spin, New York: Basic Books, 1996.


Dan Fagin, Marianne Lavelle, and the Center for Public Integrity, Toxic Deception: How the Chemical Industry Manipulates Science, Bends the Law, and Endangers Your Health, Birch Lane Press, 1997

Gail T. Fairhurst and Robert A. Sarr, The Art of Framing: Managing The Language of Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996.

Thomas B. Farrell, Norms of Rhetorical Culture, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Gilles Fauconnier, Mappings in Thought and Language, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

James R. Fazio and Douglas L. Gilbert, Public Relations and Communications for Natural Resource Managers, third edition, Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2000.

Ofer Feldman and Christ'l de Landtsheer, eds, Politically Speaking: A Worldwide Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

Edwin J. Feulner, Jr., Waging and Winning the War of Ideas, Washington: Heritage Foundation, 1986.

Seymour H. Fine, The Marketing of Ideas and Social Issues, New York: Praeger, 1981.

A. Fuat Firat, Nikhilesh Dholakia, and Richard P. Bagozzi, eds, Philosophical and Radical Thought in Marketing, Lexington, MA: Heath, 1987.

James S. Fishkin, Democracy and Deliberation: New Directions for Democratic Reform, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

James S. Fishkin, The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Alec Foege, The Empire God Built: Inside Pat Robertson's Media Machine, Wiley, 1996.

Amy Fried, Muffled Echoes: Oliver North and the Politics of Public Opinion, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

Robert V. Friedenberg, Communication Consultants in Political Campaigns: Ballot Box Warriors, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

Fred M. Frohock, Public Reason: Mediated Authority in the Liberal State, Cornell University Press, 2000.


William A. Gamson, Talking Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Oscar H. Gandy, Jr., Beyond Agenda Setting: Information Subsidies and Public Policy, Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1982.

John Gastil, By Popular Demand: Revitalizing Representative Democracy Through Deliberative Elections, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

James Paul Gee, The Social Mind: Language, Ideology, and Social Practice, Bergin and Garvey, 1992.

James Paul Gee, Glynda Hull, and Colin Lankshear, The New Work Order: Behind the Language of the New Capitalism, Westview, 1997.

Alexander L. George, Propaganda Analysis: A Study of Inferences Made From Nazi Propaganda in World War II, Evanston: Row, Peterson, 1959.

George Gerbner, Hamid Mowlana, and Herbert I. Schiller, eds, Invisible Crises: What Conglomerate Control of Media Means for America and the World, Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.

George Gerbner, The Future of Media: Digital Democracy or More Corporate Control, Seven Stories Press, 2000.

James M. Glass, Delusion: Internal Dimensions of Political Life, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

James M. Glass, Private Terror/Public Life: Psychosis and the Politics of Community, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

James M. Glass, Psychosis and Power: Threats to Democracy in the Self and the Group, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Theodore L. Glasser and Charles T. Salmon, eds, Public Opinion and the Communication of Consent, New York: Guilford Press, 1995.

Jordan Goldman, Public Relations in the Marketing Mix: Introducing Vulnerability Relations, Chicago: Crain, 1984.

Kenneth M. Goldstein, Interest Groups, Lobbying, and Participation in America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

William Graebner, The Engineering of Consent: Democracy and Authority in Twentieth-Century America, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

Bill Granstaff, Losing Our Democratic Spirit: Congressional Deliberation and the Dictatorship of Propaganda, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.

Luigi Graziano, Lobbying, Pluralism, and Democracy, Houndmills, UK: St. Martin's Press, 2001.

David Green, Shaping Political Consciousness: The Language of Politics in America from McKinley to Reagan, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Mark Green, The Other Government: The Unseen Power of Washington Lawyers, New York: Norton, 1978.

Edward A. Grefe and Martin Linsky, The New Corporate Activism: Harnessing the Power of Grassroots Tactics for Your Organization, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.

Anne Gregoy, Planning and Managing Public Relations Campaigns, second edition, London: Kogan Page, 2000.

James E. Grunig and Todd Hunt, Managing Public Relations, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984.

Larissa A. Grunig, Elizabeth Lance Toth, and Linda Childers Hon, Women in Public Relations: How Gender Influences Practice, New York: Guilford Press, 2001.

Wayne Grytting, American Newspeak: The Mangling of Meaning for Power and Profit, New Society, 2002.


Jurgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, translated by Thomas Burger, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989.

Nicky Hager and Bob Burton, Secrets and Lies: The Anatomy of an Anti-Environmental PR Campaign, Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000.

Daniel C. Hallin, We Keep America on Top of the World: Television Journalism and the Public Sphere, London: Routledge, 1994.

Susan Harding, The Book of Jerry Falwell: Fundamentalist Language and Politics, Princeton University Press, 2000.

Roderick P. Hart, Campaign Talk: Why Elections Are Good for Us, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Robert L. Heath and Richard Alan Nelson, Issues Management: Corporate Public Policymaking in an Information Society, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1986.

Robert L. Heath, ed, Strategic Issues Management: How Organizations Influence and Respond to Public Interests and Policies, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.

Robert L. Heath, ed, Handbook of Public Relations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001.

David Helvarg, The War Against the Greens: The "Wise-Use" Movement, the New Right and Anti-Environmental Violence, Sierra Club Books, 1994.

Jerry A. Hendrix, Public Relations Cases, fifth edition, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001.

Susan Herbst, Reading Public Opinion: How Political Actors View the Democratic Process, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Paul S. Herrnson, Ronald G. Shaiko, and Clyde Wilcox, eds, The Interest Group Connection: Electioneering, Lobbying, and Policymaking in Washington, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1998.

John W. Hill, The Making of a Public Relations Man, Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1993.

Christopher Hitchens, Unacknowledged Legislation: Writers in the Public Sphere, London: Verso, 2000.

Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds, The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress, Language as Ideology, second edition, London: Routledge, 1993.

Godfrey Hodgson, The World Turned Right Side Up: A History of the Conservative Ascendancy in America, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996.

Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics, and Other Essays, New York: Knopf, 1965.

Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

William Hummel and Keith Huntress, The Analysis of Propaganda, New York: Sloane, 1949.

Todd Hunt and James E. Grunig, Public Relations Techniques, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1994.



Robert Jackall, Moral Mazes: The World of Corporate Managers, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Robert Jackall, ed, Propaganda, New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Robert Jackall and Janice M. Hirota, Image Makers: Advertising, Public Relations, and the Ethos of Advocacy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dirty Politics: Deception, Distraction, and Democracy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Campaign Advertising, third edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Paul Waldman, eds, Electing the President, 2000: The Insiders' View, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Irving L. Janis, Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, second edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Karen S. Johnson-Cartee and Gary A. Copeland, Strategic Political Communication: Rethinking Social Influence, Persuasion, and Propaganda, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.

John Philip Jones, Does It Pay to Advertise? Cases Illustrating Successful Brand Advertising, Lexington, MA: Heath, 1989.

Gareth S. Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion, third edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1999.


Si Kahn, Organizing: A Guide for Grassroots Leaders, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Sheldon Kamieniecki, Public Representation in Environmental Policymaking: The Case of Water Quality Management, Boulder: Westview Press, 1980.

Michael David Kandiah and Anthony Seldon, eds, Ideas and Think Tanks in Contemporary Britain, London: Cass, 1996.

John Keane, The Media and Democracy, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991.

Sam Keen, Faces of the Enemy: Reflections of the Hostile Imagination, San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986.

Stanley Kelley, Professional Public Relations and Political Power, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1956.

Kathleen S. Kelly, Fund Raising and Public Relations: A Critical Analysis, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991.

Douglas Kellner, Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern, London: Routledge, 1995.

Douglas Kellner, Grand Theft 2000: Media Spectacle and a Stolen Election, Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

Robert Kendall, Public Relations Campaign Strategies: Planning for Implementation, Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Otto F. Kernberg, Ideology, Conflict and Leadership in Groups and Organizations, Yale University Press, 1998.

Russ Kick, ed, You Are Being Lied To: The Disinformation Guide To Media Distortion, Historical Whitewashes and Cultural Myths, RSUB, 2001.

Richard Kittredge and John Lehrberger, eds, Sublanguage: Studies of Language in Restricted Semantic Domains, Berlin: de Gruyter, 1982.

Ken Kollman, Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Group Strategies, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Philip Kotler and Alan R. Andreason, Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, third edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.

Philip Kotler and Eduardo L. Roberto, Social Marketing: Strategies for Changing Public Behavior, New York: Free Press, 1989.

Cheris Kramarae, Muriel Schulz, and William M. O'Barr, eds, Language and Power, Beverly Hills: Sage, 1984.

Neil J. Kressel, ed, Political Psychology: Classic and Contemporary Readings, New York: Paragon House, 1993.

Paul V. Kroskrity, ed, Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities and Identities, School of American Research Press, 2000.

Dean Kruckeberg and Kenneth Starck, Public Relations and Community: A Reconstructed Theory, New York: Praeger, 1988.

James H. Kuklinski, ed, Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Gideon Kunda, Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

Howard Kurtz, Spin Cycle: Inside the Clinton Propaganda Machine, New York: Free Press, 1998.


Ernesto Laclau, The Populist Reason, Verso, 2002.

Anthony Simon Laden, Reasonably Radical: Deliberative Liberalism and the Politics of Identity, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.

George Lakoff, Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know that Liberals Don't, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Craig L. LaMay and Everette E. Dennis, Media and the Environment, Washington, DC: Island Press, 1991.

Jacob M. Landau, ed, Language and Politics: Theory and Cases, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1999.

John W. Langford and K. Lorne Brownsey, eds, Think Tanks and Governance in the Asia-Pacific Region, Halifax, NS: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1991.

Jorge Larrain, The Concept of Ideology, London: Hutchinson, 1979.

John A. Ledingham and Stephen D. Bruning, eds, Public Relations as Relationship Management: A Relational Approach to the Study and Practice of Public Relations, Mahwah: Erlbaum, 2000.

Alfred McClung Lee and Elizabeth Briant Lee, eds, The Fine Art of Propaganda: A Study of Father Coughlin's Speeches, New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1939.

Alfred McClung Lee, How to Understand Propaganda, New York: Rinehart, 1952.

William Leiss, ed, Prospects and Problems in Risk Communication, Waterloo: University of Waterloo Press, 1989.

Philip Lesly, Overcoming Opposition: A Survival Manual for Executives, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Philip Lesly, ed, Lesly's Handbook of Public Relations and Communications, fourth edition, New York: American Management Association, 1991.

James P. Lester, ed, Environmental Politics and Policy: Theories and Evidence, Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.

Jacquie L'Etang and Magda Pieczka, Critical Perspectives in Public Relations, London: International Thomson Business Press, 1996.

Justin Lewis, Constructing Public Opinion: How Political Elites Do What They Like and Why We Seem to Go Along With It, New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Charles E. Lindblom, The Intelligence of Democracy: Decision Making Through Mutual Adjustment, New York: Free Press, 1965.

Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, New York: Macmillan, 1922.

George C. Lodge, Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries, Harvard Business School Press, 1987.

Burdett Loomis, The New American Politician: Ambition, Entrepreneurship, and the Changing Face of Political Life, New York: Basic Books, 1988.

Leo Lowenthal and Norbert Guterman, Prophets of Deceit: A Study of the Techniques of the American Agitator, New York: Harper, 1949.

Catherine A. Lutz and Lila Abu-Lughod, eds, Language and the Politics of Emotion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

William Lutz, ed, Beyond Nineteen Eighty-Four: Doublespeak in a Post-Orwellian Age, Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1989.

William Lutz, The New Doublespeak: Why No One Knows What Anyone's Saying Anymore, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996.

William Lutz, Doublespeak Defined, New York: HarperResource, 1999.

Gene Lyons, Fools for Scandal: How the Media Invented Whitewater, New York: Franklin Square Press, 1996.


John R. MacArthur, The Selling of "Free Trade": NAFTA, Washington, and the Subversion of American Democracy, New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.

Stephen Macedo, ed, Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Steven Mailloux, Rhetorical Power, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Bill Mallinson, Public Lies and Private Truths: An Anatomy of Public Relations, London: Cassell, 1996.

John Anthony Maltese, Spin Control: The White House Office of Communications and the Management of Presidential News, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

John Anthony Maltese, The Selling of Supreme Court Nominees, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Jarol B. Manheim, All of the People All the Time: Strategic Communication and American Politics, Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1991.

Jarol B. Manheim, Strategic Public Diplomacy and American Foreign Policy: The Evolution of Influence, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Jarol B. Manheim, The Death of a Thousand Cuts: Corporate Campaigns and the Contemporary Attack on the Corporation, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001.

Robert Karl Manoff and Michael Schudson, eds, Reading the News, New York: Pantheon, 1986.

Roland Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul: The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Fran R. Matera and Ray J. Artigue, Public Relations Campaigns and Techniques: Building Bridges Into the 21st Century, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

David R. Mayhew, America's Congress: Actions in the Public Sphere, James Madison Through Newt Gingrich, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Leon H. Mayhew, The New Public: Professional Communication and the Means of Social Influence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Siobhan McEvoy-Levy, American Exceptionalism and US Foreign Policy: Public Diplomacy At the End of the Cold War, New York: Palgrave, 2001.

James G. McGann and R. Kent Weaver, eds, Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalysts for Ideas and Action, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 2000.

Brian McNair, Journalism and Democracy: An Evaluation of the Political Public Sphere, London: Routledge, 2000.

Robert D. McPhee and Phillip K. Tompkins, eds, Organizational Communication: Traditional Themes and New Directions, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985.

Tali Mendelberg, The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Lester W. Milbrath, The Washington Lobbyists, Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963.

Robert H. Miles, Managing the Corporate Social Environment: A Grounded Theory, Prentice-Hall, 1987.

Charles Miller, Politico's Guide to Political Lobbying, London: Politico's, 2000.

Clyde R. Miller, The Process of Persuasion, New York: Crown, 1946.

Karen S. Miller, The Voice of Business: Hill and Knowlton and Postwar Public Relations, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Mark Crispin Miller, The Bush Dyslexicon: Observations on a National Disorder, New York: Norton, 2001.

Andrew K. Milton, The Rational Politician: Exploiting the Media in New Democracies, Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000.

Ian I. Mitroff and Warren Bennis, The Unreality Industry: The Deliberate Manufacturing of Falsehood and What It Is Doing to Our Lives, New York: Carol, 1989.

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