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      The bibliography contains works that I cited more than once or that have contributed to the theoretical and political analysis in this study. Newspaper and other sources that merely document facts are cited in the text.



Agee, Philip (1990). "Producing the Proper Crisis," Z Magazine, November, pp. 53-60.


Aguilar, Salvador et al. (1991). Las Mentiras de Una Guerra. Desinformación y Censura en el Conflicto del Golfo. Barcelona: Deriva Editorial.


Aksoy, Asu, and Kevin Robins (1991). "Exterminating Angels. Morality, Violence and Technology in the Gulf War," Science as Culture, No. 12, pp. 322-336.


Althusser, Louis (1969). For Marx. New York: Pantheon.


Anderson, Jack, and Dale Van Atta (1991). Stormin' Norman. New York: Zebra.


Anderson, Robin (1991). "The Press, the Public and the New World Order," Media Development, October, pp.20-26.


Arkin, William, Damian Durrant, and Marianne Cherni (1991). On Impact: Modern Warfare and the Environment. A Case Study of the Gulf War. Washington, D.C.: Greenpeace; short version in Greenpeace, May, pp. 90-112.


Armstrong, Scott (1990). "Iraqnophobia," Mother Jones, Nov.-Dec., pp. 24-27, 68.


_________ (1991). "Eye of the Storm," Mother Jones, Nov.-Dec., pp. 30-35, 75-76.


Bagdikian, Ben (1990). The Media Monopoly, 3rd ed. Boston: Beacon Press.


Barthes, Roland (1972) Mythologies. New York: Hill and Wang.


Bennis, Phillys, and Michel Moushabeck, eds. (1991). Beyond the Storm. A Gulf Crisis Reader. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Olive Branch Press.


Blackwell, James (1991). Thunder in the Desert. New York: Bantam Books.


Boggs, Carl (1991). "Social Movements and Political Strategy in the Aftermath of the Gulf War" (unpublished MS).


Bresheeth, Haim, and Nira Yuval-Davis (1991), eds. The Gulf War and the New World Order. London and Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books.


Brittain, Victoria (1991), ed., The Gulf Between Us. London: Virago.


Browne, Malcom W. (1991). "The Military vs. the Press," New York Times Magazine, March 3, pp. 27ff.


Bruck, Peter A., ed. (1991). Medien im Krieg. Die zugesplitzte Normalitat. Salzburg, Austria: Osterreichische Gesellschaft fur Kommunikationsfragen.


Bulloch, John (1991) "How Bush Lost the Gulf War," The Independent, Dec. 8, p. 10 (Sunday Review Page).


Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris (1991). Saddam's War: The Origins of the Kuwait Conflict and the International Response. London: Faber.


Cainkar, Louise (1991). "Desert Sin," in Bennis and Moushabeck 1991.


Chomsky, Noam (1987). Pirates and Emperors. Montreal: Black Rose Books.


__________  (1989). Necessary Illusions.  Boston: South End Press.


___________(1990). "Nefarious Aggression," Zeta Magazine, October,  pp. 18-29.


Clark, Ramsey, et. al (1992) War Crimes. A Report on United States War Crimes Against Iraq. Washington: Maisonnneuve.


Cleaver, Harry (1991). The Political Economy of the Persian Gulf Crisis. Austin, Tex.: Pamphlet Press.


Cockburn, Alexander and Andrew Cohen, "The Unnecessary War," in Brittain 1991, pp. 1-26.


Cohen, Roger, and Claudio Gatti (1991), In the Eye of the Storm. The Life of General H. Norman Schwarzkopf. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.


Colodny, Len, and Robert Gettlin (1991). Secret Coup. New York: Saint Martin's Press.


Czitrom, Daniel J. (1982) Media and the American Mind. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.


Darwish, Adel, and Gregory Alexander (1991). Unholy Babylon.  New York: Saint Martin's Press.


Draper, Theodore (1991). "The Gulf War Reconsidered," New York Review of Books (Jan. 16), pp. 46-53.


Draper, Theodore (1991). "The True History of the Gulf War," New York Review of Books (Jan. 30), pp. 38-45.


Drinin, Robert (1991)


Dunnigan, James F., and Austin Bay (1992). From Shield to Storm: High-Tech Weapons, Military Strategy, and Coalition Warfare in the Persian Gulf. New York: Morrow.


Ellul, Jacques (1965). Propaganda. New York: Random House.


Emery, Michael (1991). "How Mr. Bush Got His War: Deceptions, Double-Standards & Disinformation." Westfield, N.J.: Open Magazine Pamphlet Series; originally published in the Village Voice, March 5, 1991, pp. 22-27.


Emery, Michael, and Edwin Emery (1992). The Press and America: An Interpretive History of the Mass Media. 7th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.


Enloe, Cynthia (1990). "Womenandchildren. Making Feminist Sense of the Persian Gulf Crisis," Village Voice, September 25, pp. 29ff.


FAIR (1990).  Critique of MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour. New York.


_____  (1991). Press Release on Gulf War Coverage. New York.


Farouk-Sluglett, Marion, and Peter Sluglett (1990). "Iraq Since 1986: The Strengthening of Saddam." Middle East Report, No. 167, pp. 19-24.


Fialka, John J. (1992). The Hotel Warriors: Covering the Gulf. Washington, D.C.: The Media Studies Project/Woodrow Wilson Center.


Fox, Thomas C. (1991). Iraq: Military Victory, Moral Defeat. New York: Sheed & Ward.


Frank, Andre Gunder (1991). "Third World War: A Political Economy of the Gulf War and New World Order," in The Gulf War and the New World Order.  Amsterdam: Notebooks for Study and Research, #14.


Friedman, Norman (1991). Desert Victory. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press.


Fromm, Erich (1941). Escape from Freedom. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Gerbner, George (1992) "Persian Gulf War: The Movie," in Mowlana, Gerbner, and Schiller 1992.


Gerbner, George, and Larry Gross (1976) "Living with Television: The Violence Profile," Journal of Communications (Spring), pp. 173-199


Gibson, James William (1986). The Perfect War. Technowar in Vietnam. Boston and New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press.


Gittings, John (1991). Beyond the Gulf War: the Middle East and the New World Order. XX, Catholic Institute for International Relations.


Graubard, Stephen R. (1992). Mr. Bush's War (New York: Hill and Wang.


Greer, Edward (1991). "The Hidden History of the Iraq War," Monthly Review, May, pp.1-14.


Gross, Bertram (1980). Friendly Fascism. Boston: South End Press.


Habermas, Jurgen (1975). Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press.


Halberstam, David (1973). The Brightest and the Best. New York: Random House.


Henderson, Simon (1991). Instant Empire: Saddam Hussein's Ambition for Iraq. San Franciso: Mercury House.


Henson, Scott (1991). "Entangling Alliances," The Texas Observer, Jan. 25, pp. 5-8.


Herman, Edward, and Noam Chomsky (1988) Manufacturing Consent. New York: Pantheon.


Herr, Michael (1967). Dispatches. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.



Hilop, Diro (1990). The Longest War. London: Paladin Books.


Jaber, Saleh (1991). "The New Imperialist Crusade," in The Gulf War and the New World Order, Notebooks for Study and Research, #14.


Jewett, Robert and John Lawrence (1988). The American Monomyth, 2d edition. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.


Jin, Khoo Khay ed., (1991). Whose War? What Peace? Reflections on the Gulf Conflict. Penang: Aliran Kesedaran Malaysia.


Joseph, William K. (1991). "Right on Schedule," The Journal of Psychohistory, 19 (1), pp. 23-33.


Jowett, Garth, and Victoria O'Donnell (1992) Propaganda and Persuasion. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.


Karsh, Efraim, and Inari Rautski (1991). Saddam Hussein. A Political Biography. New York: The Free Press.


Keeble, Richard (forthcoming)


Keen, Sam (1986). Faces of the Enemy.  New York: Harper and Row.


Kellner, Douglas (1978). "Ideology, Marxism, and Advanced Capitalism," Socialist Review 42 (Nov.-Dec.), pp. 37-65.


______________ (1979). "TV, Ideology and Emancipatory Popular Culture," Socialist Review 45 (May-June), pp. 13-53.


______________ (1984). Herbert Marcuse and the Crisis of Marxism. London: Macmillan Press and Berkeley: University of California Press.


______________ (1989a). Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity. Cambridge and Baltimore: Polity Press and Johns Hopkins University Press.


______________ (1989b). "From 1984 to One-Dimensional Man: Reflections on Orwell and Marcuse," Current Perspectives in Social Theory, Vol. 10, pp. 223-252.


______________ (1990). Television and the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder, Col.: Westview.


______________ (forthcoming). "Film, Politics, and Ideology: Toward a Multiperspectival Film Theory," in Movies and Politics, ed., James Combs (New York: Garland, in press).


Kellner, Douglas and Michael Ryan (1988) Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film. Bloomington, Ind.: University of Indiana Press.


Kelly, John (1990). "Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives," April 26, 1990. Washington: U.S. government Printing Office.


al-Khalil, Samir (1989). Republic of Fear. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Klare, Michael (1990). "Policing the Gulf-- and the World," The       Nation, Oct. 15, p. 413, 416-420.


___________ (1991). "Fueling the Fire: How We Armed the Middle East," The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Jan./Feb., pp. 19-26.


Knightly, Phillip (1975). The First Casualty. New York and London: Harbourt Brace Jovanovich.


Kolko, Gabriel (1991) "Obsessed with Military 'Credibility,'" The Progressive, March, pp. 24-26.


Kotz, David, and Mehrene Larudee (1991). "Settling Accounts: Who Gets What in the Post-war Grab for Contracts and Oil?" In These Times (March 27, 1991), p. 17


a)2LaMay, Craig, et al. (1991). The Media at War. New York: Gannett Foundation Media Center.


Lang, Curtis (1991). "It's Oil in the Family," Village Voice, February 5, p. 32-33.


Lasswell, Harold D. (1971). Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


Lee, Martin A., and Norman Solomon (1991). Unreliable Sources. 2nd ed. New York: Lyle Stuart.


Luostarinen, Heikki (1991). "Innovations of Moral Policy in the Gulf War," Media Development, October, pp. 10-14.


MacArthur, Brian ed., (1991). Despatches from the Gulf War. London: Bloomsbury.


MacArthur, John R. (1992) Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War. New York: Hill and Wang.


Malek, Abbas and Lisa Leidig (1991). "US press coverage of the Gulf War," Media Development, October, pp. 15-19.


McPeak, Merrill (1991) "Special Defense Department Briefing." Washington, D.C.: Federal Information Systems Corporation, March 15.


Melman, Seymour (1991) "Military State Capitalism," The Nation, May 20, p. 66


Middle East Watch/Human Rights Watch (1991). Needless Deaths in the Gulf War: Civilian Casualties During the Air Campaign and Violations of the Laws of War. New York.


Miller, Judith and Laurie Mylroie (1990). Saddam Hussein and the Crisis in the Gulf. New York: Times Books.


Miller, Mark Crispin (1992) Spectacle: Operation Desert Storm and the Triumph of Illusion. New York: Poseidon/Simon and Schuster.


Mowlana, Hamid, George Gerbner, and Herbert Schiller (1992). Triumph of the Image. Boulder, Col.: Westview.


Owen, Roger (1991) "Epilogue: Making Sense of an Earthquake," in Brittain 1991, pp. 159-178.


Postol, Theodore A. (1991) House Armed Services Committee, Washington, D.C.: Federal Information Systems Corporation, April 16.


Postol, Theodore A. (1991-1992) "Lessons of the Gulf. War Experience with Patriot." International Security, Vol 16, Nr. 3 (Winter), pp. 119-171).


Pratt, Ray (1991). "Manipulated Public or National in 'Denial'?" (unpublished Ms.).


Ridgeway, James, ed. (1991). The Rush to War. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.


Roach, Colleen (1991). "Feminism, Peace, and Culture," Media Development (in press).


Robins, Kevin and Les Levidow (1991). "The Eye of the Storm," Screen, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Autumn), pp. 324-328.


Rogin, Michael (1987). Ronald Reagan: The Movie. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Ruffini, Gene (1991). "Press Fails to Challenge the Rush to War," Washington Journalism Review, March, pp. 21-23.


Sackur, Stephen (1992). On The Basra Road. London: London Review of Books.


Said, Edward (1978). Orientalism. New York: Random House.


_____________ (1981). Covering Islam. New York: Random House.


Salinger, Pierre, and Eric Laurent (1991). Secret Dossier: The Hidden Agenda Behind the Gulf War. New York: Penquin Books.


Sasson, Jean. P. (1991) The Rape of Kuwait. New York: Knightsbridge.


Schanberg, Sydney H. (1991), "Censoring for Military Political Security," Washington Journalism Review, March, pp. 23-26.


Schechter, Danny (1991). "Gulf War Coverage," Z Magazine, December, pp. 22-25.


Schiller, Herbert (1989). Culture, Inc. New York: Oxford University Press.


Sciolino, Elaine (1991). The Outlaw State. New York: John Wiley.


Shaheen, Jack G. (1984). The TV Arab.  Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press.


Sick, Gary (1991) The October Surprise. New York: Random House.


Sifry, Micah L., and Christopher Cerf, editors, (1991). The Gulf War Reader. New York: Random House.


Simpson, John (1991) From the House of War. London: Arrow Books.


Slotkin, Richard (1973). Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.


Smith, Jean Edward (1992). George Bush's War. New York: Holt.


Smith, Perry (1991). How CNN Fought the War.  New York: Birch Lane Press.


Sprey, Pierre, and Bill Perry (1991), House Armed Services Committee, Washington, D.C.: Federal Information Systems Corporation, April 22.


Stockwell, John (1978). In Search of Enemies. New York: Norton.


________ _(1991). The Praetorian Guard. Boston: South End Press.


Tokar, Brian (1991). "Disaster in the Gulf and Poison at Home,"  Z Magazine, December, pp. 57-60.


Umberson, Debra, and Kristin Henderson (1991). "The Social Construction of Death in the Gulf War" (unpublished Ms.).


U.S. News and World Report (1992) Triumph Without Victory. New York: Random House.


Yant, Martin (1991) Desert Mirage: The True Story of the Gulf War (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books).


Vialls, Joe (1991). "Kuwait Oil Volcanos Still Active," PeaceNet, mideast.gulf, Dec. 1.


Vidal, John (1991) "Poisoned Sand and Seas," in Brittain 1991, pp. 133-142.


Waas, Murray (1990). "What We Gave Saddam for Christmas: The Secret History of How the United States and Its Allies Armed Iraq," The Village Voice, Dec. 18.


Waas, Murray (1991). "Who Lost Kuwait?" The Village Voice, Jan. 16-22, pp. 60ff.


Weiner, Jon (1991) "Domestic Political Incentives for the Gulf War," New Left Review (May/June), pp. 72-78.


Weiner, Robert (1992) Live From Baghdad. New York: Doubleday.


Whittemore, Hank (1990) CNN: The Inside Story.  Boston: Little, Brown and Company.


Winter, James (1991). "Truth as the First Casualty: Mainstream Media Portrayal of the Gulf War," The Electronic Journal of Communication, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Fall).


Wolton, Dominique (1991) War Game. Paris: Flammarion.


Woodward, Bob (1991). The Commanders. New York: Simon and Schuster.